Use for

Highlighting competing claims and stakeholderstrategies and identifying innovative concepts or practices that can count on wide support.


Stakeholders have different worldviews and are driven by different values. That results in different perceptions of their environment and in a negotiable reality. A second principle is that claims are made not only by local stakeholders, but that interests on a higher scale are also a factor and interventions may also be needed there.

What do you do?

With DEED's overarching approach to vision creation/reorientation, you and the participants engage in a repeating cycle of research and dialogue. Crucial phases in this process are those of Describe, Explain, Explore and Design. DEED was developed for innovative concepts and practices in relation to land use.

  • In the ‘Describe' phase, you describe such as the dynamism of sources and the historic developments that led to the present situation, as well as the physical, social and political drivers.
  • In the ‘Explain' phase, you explain the process, investigate interactions, work with models/experiments, interpret results with stakeholders and reveal where power and influence lies.
  • In the ‘Explore' phase, you conduct research into aspects such as trade-offs and choices, alternative sources and other processes and perform scenario analyses.
  • The ‘Design' phase involves setting out new concepts, approaches and sources and how to seize opportunities.

During every phase, you discuss all of the activities and methods with the stakeholders in order to reach a consensus on views and solutions.


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More information

Jansma, J.E., Visser, A.J., de Wolf, P. en Stobbelaar, D.J.(2008). Agromere: how to integrate urban agriculture in the development of the Dutch city of Almere? 16th IFOAM Organic World Congress, Modena, Italy, June 16-20.

Visser, A.J., E.J. Jansma, H. Schoorlemmer and M. Slingerland. (2008). How to deal with competing claims in peri-urban design and development the Deed Framework in the Agromere project. Chapter 13 in Transitions: towards sustainable agriculture and food chains in peri-urban areas. Edited by Poppe, K.J., C.Termeer and M. Singerland. Wageningen Academic Publishers: Wageningen. 

Used by

Jan Eelco Jansma, Wageningen UR.